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Runge’s color orb and color patterns were invented in history

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In 1766 the British insect researcher and graphic artist Moses Harris (1730 – 1788) published a book called “The Natural System of Colors,” in which he built a dice wheel based on 3. primary colors red, yellow and blue. He was the first to propose the idea of ​​the contrast between complementary colors, and put that idea into his dither wheel. He wrote: “If you want a color or contrast color in the cake away from the color, look at the opposite color. For example, if you want to find which color is the color most contrasting with red, look at the color opposite it on the wheel – it’s green.

The opposite color to blue is orange, and the most opposite to yellow is purple. ” Harrris’s wheel of dynamics had a great influence on painters, including Joseph Turner (1775 – 1851) – British artist with paintings predicting the birth of French Impressionist painting in the 19th century. Harris’s dither wheel also initiated the introduction of a series of dither wheels by other authors such as James Sowerby in 1809, George Field in 1817 and Charles Hayter in 1826.

Opponents of theory Newton’s dithering uses Harris’s dither wheel as proof that the colors in fact do not obey the dither law of light.

The German painter Philipp Otto Runge (1777 – 1810) proposed the first modern dithering system. Runge’s dither model (published in 1810) uses three primary colors: yellow, blue and black and white to create all the other colors. On the Runge sphere the luminance is aligned with the parallel, while the chromaticity is classified as meridians, while the color saturation is calculated from the center to the surface of the sphere. This is the first time each color has an exact position in relation to all primary colors as well as blends. Unfortunately, Runge died at the age of 33 due to tuberculosis, before he could make a color grading marker on his sphere. Johannes Itten’s dither crane model (1888 – 1967) was later very similar to Runge’s.

Hemisphere colors of Chevreul

Inheriting the color sphere of Runge, in 1839 French chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul (1786 – 1889) proposed a color hemisphere model. He divided the equator of the sphere into 6 equal parts for the 3 primary colors red, yellow, blue and 3 secondary colors orange, green, purple. Each color section is divided into 12 colors, a total of 72 colors are arranged around the equator. The dark brightness of each color is determined by the black factor (nero factor): the darkest at the hemisphere surface, the whiter the center of the heart becomes. The axis perpendicular to the equator plane (ie the axis from the north pole to the center of the sphere) has only two black and white colors that change from black at the top to white at the center.

Chevreul also carefully studied the effect that occurs when colors are placed side by side, about color contrast, about the appearance of light streaks at the boundary between light and dark colors (Chevreul illusion). Chevreul’s work on colors has had a great influence on Impressionist, New Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painters.

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